JICDRO is a UGC approved journal (Journal no. 63927)

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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 61-64

Role of dermatoglyphic features associated with periodontal diseases

1 Department of Periodontics and Implantology, VSPM Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Periodontology, VSPM Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication31-Dec-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Surekha Rathod
Department of Periodontics and Implantology, VSPM Dental College and Research Centre, Digdoh Hills, Hingna Road, Nagpur - 440 017, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_8_18

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Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the features of palmer dermatoglyphic with aggressive, chronic periodontitis, and periodontally healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients with mean age of 18–45 years were equally divided into three groups comprising 15 patients in each group as follows: Group I-periodontally healthy, Group II-aggressive periodontitis, and Group III-chronic periodontitis. The fingertip patterns of all the patients in each group were obtained and analyzed with the help of magnifying glass. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: An increased frequency of whorls was found in patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis, whereas increase frequency of ulnar loop was found higher in the healthy group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was found that whorl patterns were in greater frequency in aggressive periodontitis patients. However, further studies with larger sample size are required to arrive at a conclusive report to correlate dermatoglyphic patterns in patients.

Keywords: Aggressive periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, dermatoglyphic, fingerprint

How to cite this article:
Rathod S, Maske S, Kolte A, Wanikar I. Role of dermatoglyphic features associated with periodontal diseases. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2018;10:61-4

How to cite this URL:
Rathod S, Maske S, Kolte A, Wanikar I. Role of dermatoglyphic features associated with periodontal diseases. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Aug 12];10:61-4. Available from: http://www.jicdro.org/text.asp?2018/10/2/61/249141

   Introduction Top

Periodontal diseases have a multifactorial etiology and range from the mildest gingival inflammation to advanced destructive periodontitis with the loss of attachment, bone tissue, and teeth.[1] Dermatoglyphics is a derived from a Greek word derma meaning skin and glyphic means curve, respectively,[2] dermatoglyphics is the study of palmar dermal ridges present on the volar surface of soles, palms, and ridges. The term was coined by Cummins and Midlo in 1926,[2] and Harold Cummins is considered to be the father of dermatoglyphic.[3] Dermatoglyphics is a tool to predict occurrence and risk of the biomedical event which is measure gene expression determined by the early prenatal age on each fingertip, the ridge count offers a measure of fingertip growth activity during the early fetal. These dermal ridges are formed during 12th–19th week and the resulting fingertip ridge appearance is fixed permanently thereafter.[4] Arches, loops, and whorls are the ridge patterns present on the phalanges of the fingertip. Arch is formed by a sequence of more or less parallel ridges, which traverse the pattern from one side and exit from other side forming an arch-like curve at center. There are two types of arch pattern as follows: simple and tented arch. In the simple arch, ridges cross the fingertip from one side to the other side without recurring.

In the tented arch, ridges usually radiate from a specific point in three different directions known as triradius [Figure 1]. Loop is the most common fingertip pattern. In this configuration, a series of ridges enter the pattern area on the ipsilateral side. If the ridge opens on the ulnar side the resulting loop is referred to as an ulnar loop, whereas if it opens toward the radial margin it is called a radial loop [Figure 2].[4]
Figure 1: arch pattern

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Figure 2: loop pattern

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A whorl (W) is a more than two ridge structure where one triradius is on the radial and another on the ulnar side of the pattern [Figure 3].[4]
Figure 3: whorl pattern

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Dermatoglyphic studies have been conducted in chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome, Turners syndrome, anomalies of teeth, cleft lip and palate, dental caries, malocclusion, oral cancer, and periodontal diseases.

Aggressive periodontitis, a disease of periodontium occurring in an otherwise healthy adolescent which is characterized by a rapid loss of alveolar bone about more than one tooth of the permanent dentition.[5]

The striking feature of aggressive periodontitis may always the minimal sign of clinical inflammation and scanty amount of plaque and calculus. Hence, the early detection of AgP is not possible. Therefore, the periodontal screening must be a part of their routine dental examination. AgP is multifactorial disease developing as a result of interaction among various microbiological agent, host, genes, immunologic, and environmental factors which decides the onset, course, and severity of the disease, therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the dermatoglyphic features Among healthy, aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

   Materials and Methods Top

The present study was conducted in the out-patient department of periodontics. The participants were explained about the details of the study, and informed consent was obtained. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. A total of 45 patients with a mean age of 18–45 years were comprised of 27 males and 18 females. These patients were divided into three groups including 15 patients in each group. Group I periodontally healthy patient (control group), Group II consisted of aggressive periodontitis patients. Group III comprises patients with chronic periodontitis, respectively. Patients with systemic diseases were excluded from the study.

Periodontitis was assessed using probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥5 mm and clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥5 mm (Group III).

Dermatoglyphic pattern recording

Standard ink method was used to determine fingerprint patterns. All the participants were requested to clean their hands to remove impurities. Spirit was used to remove remaining oil and other dirt and keep the hand clean and dry. With the help of Kores duplicating ink, the fingers print were recorded and studied with the help of magnifying lens. Patterns were classified as arches, loops, whorls, and periodontal status were recorded using plaque index and gingival index.[6],[7]

Statistical analysis

Data analysis was performed using tables in Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS version 24, (IBM, Bangalore, Karnataka). The difference in the mean parameter values across groups was tested for statistical significance using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The comparison of dermatoglyphic pattern across groups was performed using the Chi-square test.

   Results Top

While applying ANOVA test, a highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed between the three groups. The mean gingival index of the patients with Group II and Group III was 2.0 + 0.9, 1.2 ± 0.4, whereas for Group I, it was 0.5 ± 0.1. The mean plaque index of the patients with Group II and Group III was 1.9 ± 0.9; 1.3 ± 0.3, whereas for the controls was 0.5 ± 0.1 which was highly significant [Table 1]. The frequency of whorls pattern found higher on all fingers of patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis, whereas the increased frequency of ulnar loop pattern found on all fingers of the periodontally healthy control [Table 2] and [Graph 1].
Table 1: Mean values of oral health status among the three groups

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Table 2: Distribution of dermatoglyphic patterns among the three groups using Chi-square test

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   Discussion Top

Around 4000 papers have been published on the significance of skin-ridge patterns in the last 30 years or so more. While many of these have been restricted to the study of genetic or congenital disorders, not all of them have been related solely with chromosomal disorders.

As dermatoglyphic patterns are assumed to be associated with genetic factors, the idea of using it as supportive evidence in the diagnosis of hereditary disorders becomes a reality, although the exact mechanism of inheritance is still unknown. Serious medical and dental diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart diseases and hypertension, dental caries, periodontitis, and malocclusion had also been studied for early prediction. Hence, hypothetically some association between particular dermatoglyphics pattern of these patients are expected, that may aid the clinician to initiate early preventive or intervention. The present study assessment revealed an increased frequency of whorls pattern on all fingers of patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. The observed dermatoglyphic patterns in aggressive periodontitis patients reference are similar to the results of a study done by Atasu et al. According to the latter, a periodontal condition correlated to dermatoglyphics with decreased frequencies of ulnar loops on all fingers of the patients with juvenile periodontitis (aggressive periodontitis) and the patients of acute periodontitis showed increase in frequencies of concentric whorls and transversal ulnar loops.[8]

In the present study, whorl pattern found higher in chronic periodontitis group, whereas loop pattern found more in the control group this observation was with the study by Sowmya et al. The second most common pattern found in the chronic periodontitis patients was the ulnar loop.[9]

In our study, arch pattern was found higher in AgP patients than chronic periodontitis and control group. This result is in accordance with Elavarasu who reported a higher percentage of whorls in chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy individuals. Loop patterns are significantly more in healthy Group than chronic periodontitis.[10] Where Vaidya et al. in 2016 was reported more whorls and less arches in patients with chronic periodontitis.[11] Our observation concurs with the present study, more whorl and less arch pattern found in chronic periodontitis. Harikrishna et al. 2017 described an increased frequency of ulnar loops on all fingers of patients with aggressive periodontitis, and an increased the frequency of whorls, and ulnar loops were found on all fingers of patients with chronic periodontitis. These result are similar with the present study in which increase frequency of whorl and ulnar loops found in chronic periodontitis and the ulnar loop is the second most common pattern found in AgP.[12]

Small sample size and unequal gender distribution are the limitations of this study. An abnormality in finger could interfere in the dermatoglyphic record. The detection of the patterns could be subjective to manual errors so the fingerprint analyses with the help of Automated Fingerprint Identification System in large scale would overcome such limitations.

   Conclusion Top

Within the limitations of the study, dermatoglyphics may serve as strong bio-indicator to find susceptibility to AgP due to the familial nature of its occurrence.

This dermatoglyphics research only adds a cornerstone to the existing research work. Further studies with a larger population and similar approach may be required as a screening test to find person's susceptibility to AgP and could have early intervention therapy for limiting the progression of diseases.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Yilmaz S, Atasu M, Kuru B. A genetic and dermatoglyphic study on periodontitis. J Marmara Univ Dent Fac 1993;1:297-306.  Back to cited text no. 1
Vineet G, Madhusudan A, Gaurav S. Dermatogiyphic in oral and systemic diseases. JDSOR 2015;6:109-44.  Back to cited text no. 2
Prabhu N, Issrani R, Mathur S, Mishra G, Sinha S. Dermatoglyphics in health and diseases: A review. J Res Adv Dent 2014;3:20-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
Shyamala K, Hemavathy S, Girish HC. Dermatoglyphics in aggressive periodontitis: A genetic analysis. Indian J Dent Sci 2015;7:40-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
Devishree G, Sheela G. Aggressive periodontal diseases – A possible link? IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2015;14:69-72.  Back to cited text no. 5
Silness J, Loe H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. II. Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condtion. Acta Odontol Scand 1964;22:121-35.  Back to cited text no. 6
Loe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand 1963;21:533-51.  Back to cited text no. 7
Atasu M, Kuru B, Firatli E, Meriç H. Dermatoglyphic findings in periodontal diseases. Int J Anthropol 2005;20:63-75.  Back to cited text no. 8
Astekar S, Garg V, Astekar M, Agarwal A, Murari A. Genetic association in chronic periodontitis through dermatoglyphics an unsolved link? J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2017;29:195-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
  [Full text]  
Elavarasu S, Suthanthiran T, Thangavelu A, Soman P, Muruganathan PK, Santhakumar P. Evaluation of dermatoglyphic patterns in chronic periodontitis patients. J Indian Acad Dent Spec Res 2017;4:50-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
  [Full text]  
Vaidya P, Mahale S, Badade P, Warang A, Kale S, Kalekar L. Dermatoglyphics in periodontics: An assessment of the relationship between fingerprints and periodontal status – A cross-sectional observation study. Indian J Dent Res 2017;28:637-41.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Harikrishna R, Praveen K, Atifabdul B. Dermatoglyphics and periodontal diseases – A possible relation for early prediction?Int J Adv Res 2017;5:1332-8.  Back to cited text no. 12


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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