JICDRO is a UGC approved journal (Journal no. 63927)
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2019
Volume 11 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-51

Online since Monday, June 24, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

Burnout in dentistry: A myth or reality p. 1
Sonali Vijay Deshmukh
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_18_19  
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REIVEW ARTICLE Top

Role of Interleukin-17 in immunopathology of chronic and aggressive periodontitis p. 3
Anand Narayanrao Wankhede, Prasad Vijayrao Dhadse
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_4_19  
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is derived from T-cells. It is a strong agent of inflammation in inflammatory condition including the periodontitis. Several studies have focused on finding the role of IL-17 in the initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis (AgP). The aim of this review is to analyze the role of IL-17 in immunopathology of chronic periodontitis and AgP. An electronic literature search was conducted in the PubMed database using keywords aggressive, chronic, cytokine, IL-17, and periodontitis. A total of 152 publications were identified, wherein 43 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria which were included and data extraction was done. Findings of these studies indicate that IL-17 is the important cytokine which plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. More studies in all ethnic groups are necessary and hence that the predictive value (cutoff) of IL-17 levels in chronic and AgP can be determined.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH BASIC AND CLINICAL Top

Comparative evaluation of the effect of various endodontic irrigants on the push-out bond strength of endosequence, Biodentine™, and MTA Plus™ root repair materials: An in vitro study p. 9
Nitika Tiwari, Anamika C Borkar, Anita Tandale, Nikhil Nighot, Sailee Ghare, Sayali Maral
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_3_19  
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of 2% chlorhexidine and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigating solutions on the push-out bond strength of EndoSequence, Biodentine™, and MTA Plus™ root repair materials. Materials and Methods: Teeth were decoronated, and the midroot was sectioned horizontally into slices with the thickness of 2.0 mm with the help of diamond discs. The canal space was enlarged to diameter of 1.4 mm with the help of Gates-Glidden Drill. The samples were divided into three groups (n = 12). EndoSequence, Biodentine™, and MTA Plus™ root repair materials were condensed in the canal space and allowed to set for 10 min. The three groups were further subdivided into two subgroups each. Each material was immersed in NaOCl and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), respectively, for 30 min, rinsed with distilled water, and allowed to set for 48 h at 37°C with 100% humidity in an incubator. The push-out bond strength value was then measured using a universal testing machine. Data obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: EndoSequence root repair material (ERRM) proved to have the highest push-out bond strength followed by Biodentine™ and MTA Plus™ root repair materials. In subgroups, CHX in contact with ERRM showed the highest push-out bond strength followed by NaOCl, whereas Biodentine™ when in contact with NaOCl showed more push-out bond strength than when in contact with CHX. MTA Plus™ in contact with CHX showed the least push-out bond strength. Conclusion: The push-out bond strength of ERRM significantly increased after exposure to NaOCl and has the highest push-out bond strength followed by Biodentine™, and MTA Plus™ has the least push-out bond strength.
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Comparative evaluation of intraorifice sealing ability of different materials in endodontically treated teeth: An In vitro study p. 14
Kanwalpreet Kaur Bhullar, Shantun Malhotra, Renuka Nain, Harsheen Bedi, Ramandeep Singh Bhullar, Amandeep Singh Walia
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_18_18  
Introduction: Coronal microleakage holds importance among various causes of failure after endodontic treatment leading to infection in the periradicular, periodontal ligament, or supporting osseous structures. Loss of coronal seal may occur due to leakage of temporary filling material or fracture of the permanent restoration. Therefore, the use of an intraorifice barrier material would be advantageous in reducing leakage and increasing possibilities for success. Materials and Methods: Fifty single-rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated, cleaned, shaped, and obturated. Gutta-percha was removed to the depth of 3 mm from the orifice. Ten specimens each were sealed with Cention N (Ivoclar Vivadent), Biodentine (Septodont), and glass-ionomer cement (GIC, GC9 high-strength posterior restoration) along with positive and negative control groups, respectively. The teeth were then submerged in dye. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned, and leakage was measured using ×10 stereomicroscope and graded for the depth of microleakage. Results: The samples were subjected to statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test and showed that mean microleakage values in all the groups were significantly different from each other (P < 0.001) with the lowest microleakage in Biodentine followed by GIC and Cention N and highest in positive control group. No microleakage was seen in negative control group. Conclusion: The present study concluded that intraorifice barrier placement provides better coronal seal, prevents microleakage, and enhances the longevity of postobturation restorations. Biodentine proved to be the best followed by GIC, Cention N, and control groups.
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Comparative evaluation of microleakage in Class V cavities restored with giomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, zirconomer and nano-ionomer: An In vitro study p. 20
K Mohammed Salman, Savitha B Naik, N Kiran Kumar, Seema Merwade, Biji Brigit, Reshu Jalan
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_2_19  
Aims and Objective: Clinically, microleakage is the major cause for the failure of restorations in Class V cavities which may cause postoperative sensitivity and secondary caries. The newer generation of glass ionomers has been introduced in market with superior characteristics compared to conventional glass ionomers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of new novel restorative material Nano-ionomer with resin-modified glass ionomer, Zirconomer, Giomer to tooth surface by measuring the degree of microleakage at gingival and occlusal restorative margins of Class V cavities and compare the same among the groups using stereomicroscopic study. Methodology: A total of 60 Class V cavities were prepared with occlusal margin in enamel, and the cervical margin in dentin and cementum of sound extracted premolars. Restorations were randomly assigned to one of the four groups (n = 15) and were restored with various type of glass ionomers (resin-modified glass-ionomer cements [RMGIC], Zirconomer, Giomer, Nano-ionomer), respectively. Specimens were thermocycled, immersed in Methylene blue dye, sectioned longitudinally and analyzed for leakage at the occlusal and cervical interfaces. Analysis of variance test, followed by post hoc Bonferroni Test was used to determine the inter- and intra-group difference and Paired t-test was used to determine the significant difference at enamel and cementum margins. Results: The intergroup comparison of occlusal and gingival scores showed a significant difference between RMGIC and Giomer, Zirconomer and Nano-Ionomer and Giomer and Nano-Ionomer (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that all the restorative materials tested shows microleakage to an extent. Nano-ionomer was better than the other three types of glass ionomers in reducing the microleakage.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding molar-incisor hypomineralization among postgraduates and faculty members of K.M. Shah Dental College and Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India p. 26
Kritika K Daryani, KS Poonacha, Anshula N Deshpande, Bhavna H Dave, Monika Khoja, Kinjal S Patel
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_5_19  
Context: Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a defect existing in the form of demarcated and opaque lesions and in severe cases with posteruptive enamel breakdown. There is a lack of knowledge, learning, and practice on MIH in pediatric dentistry. Aims: This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitude, and practice on MIH among postgraduates and faculty members of K.M. Shah Dental College and Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Settings and Design: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among the dental staff and postgraduate students of K.M. Shah Dental College. Subjects and Methods: The questionnaire was hand-delivered to all 142 participants, and they were asked to fill it within 5 working days. The questionnaire included demographic information, prevalence, incidence, and severity of MIH in Vadodara City. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The data were found to be normal by the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Intergroup comparison was done using the Chi-square test for proportions and percentages (qualitative data). Results: 43.3% of the respondents could not implement the clinical criteria to diagnose MIH, 92.5% of the respondents recommended to include MIH-associated case studies in the curriculum, 95% of the respondents recommended to conduct awareness programs, and 40.5% of the respondents indicated a lack of knowledge as a barrier for performing MIH management. Conclusions: There is a need for dentists to attend continuing dental education programs and various awareness programs on MIH and to introduce in-depth information on MIH-etiology and its treatment into the dental curriculum.
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Glycyrrhiza glabra: An efficient medicinal plant for control of periodontitis – A randomized clinical trial p. 32
Suman Madan, Seema Kashyap, Gul Mathur
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_7_19  
Background: Periodontitis is a common oral problem that everyone faces at least once in lifetime. According to the WHO, among all oral diseases, prevalence rate of periodontitis is very high. As definition given by the American Dental Association, periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of the tooth and its supporting structure which leads to loosening of the teeth in their socket and lastly loss of teeth. From ancient times, peoples are using traditional medicines to prevent or cure the disease. Glycyrrhiza glabra is one of the medicinal plants that show the effectiveness for sore throat and other respiratory infections in researches. Thus, the present study is an attempt to check the efficacy of G. glabra in the prevention and cure of periodontitis. Methodology: A randomized clinical control trial was conducted on 104 patients divided into two groups – experimental group and control group. G. glabra gum paint in 10% concentration was given to patients of experimental group for 4 weeks. All patients were instructed to strictly follow good oral hygiene habits. Parameters used for checking the effectiveness of G. glabra were gingival bleeding, loss of attachment, and depth of periodontal pockets. Results: Preintervention and postintervention scores were analyzed by means of mean, standard deviation, and t-test. There is a significant improvement in periodontal status of patients in the experimental group. Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that G. glabra was effective in preventing periodontal diseases. The present study also motivates to conduct more Medicinal plant-based clinical trial in the prevention of periodontitis so that effective treatment can be provided with a minimal side effect.
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CLINICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUES/CASE REPORT WITH DISCUSSION Top

Calcium sulfate: An unconventional bone graft in the management of furcation involvement – A case series p. 36
Mukherji Arnav
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_9_18  
This case series is an attempt to evaluate the potentials of calcium sulfate as a regenerative modality in the treatment of furcation involvement. Conventionally, different types of alloplastic bone grafts such as demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, freeze-dried bone allograft, beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass, or a combination of these with barrier membrane have been employed. Very few studies have been carried out on human furcation involvement using calcium sulfate bone graft. The results obtained were encouraging in terms of regeneration. This case series sheds light on calcium sulfate in the management of furcal involvement.
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An Integrated modified lip repositioning using bioresorbable collagen membrane: A long-lasting auxiliary treatment approach for gummy smile p. 43
Dhar Devang Thaker, Shilpi Shah, Ritu Saptak Shah, Archita Kikani
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_15_18  
Excessive gingival display is one of the major causes of patient embarrassment. An imbalance in the gingiva–tooth ratio results in the dominance of gingival appearance often referred to as “gummy smile.” A normal gingival display between the inferior border of the upper lip and the gingival margin of the central incisors during a normal smile is 1–2 mm. In contrast, an excessive gingivae-to-lip distance of 4 mm or more is classified as an unattractive. The objective of lip repositioning surgery is surgical correction of unesthetic gummy smile by limiting the retraction of the elevator smile muscles resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display during smiling. This article presents a case of a gummy smile in which esthetic correction was achieved through periodontal plastic surgical procedure wherein 10–12 mm of partial-thickness flap was dissected apical to mucogingival junction sparing the midline maxillary labial frenum and placement of bioresorbable collagen membrane on excised area followed by approximation of flaps. This case with score 3 smile line was treated by lip repositioning technique with successful clinical outcome and enormous patient satisfaction. This technique holds importance as perioesthetics has become an integral part of periodontal treatment plan with the periodontist playing akey role to combat the patient's embarrassment.
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Preprosthetic surgery: An adjunct to complete denture therapy p. 49
Medha Vivek Bhuskute, Ravi G K Shet
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_6_19  
Pre-prosthetic surgery is an integral part of Complete denture Prosthodontics. The ultimate goal of pre-prosthetic surgery is to prepare a mouth to receive a dental prosthesis by redesigning and smoothening bony edges which would otherwise cause hindrance in restoration of optimum health and function. This case report discusses how reduction of severe bony prominences and smoothening of irregular ridges resulted in achieving a better denture foundation which if left untreated otherwise would have resulted in sore spots and immense discomfort to the patient.
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