JICDRO is a UGC approved journal (Journal no. 63927)
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-June 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-83

Online since Wednesday, July 29, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Being in peace with coronavirus disease 2019 Highly accessed article p. 1
Sonali Vijay Deshmukh
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_34_20  
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS Top

In Vivo Longevity of giomer as compared to other adhesive restorative materials: A systematic review p. 3
Rajvi K Bheda, Sanjyot A Mulay, Anita Sanap Tandale
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_2_20  
In vivo longevity of Giomer as compared to other adhesive restorative materials. A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE PubMed, EbscoHost, Scopus, Google Scholar, and manual search using College library resources were searched from January 2005 up to and including September 30, 2018, to identify appropriate studies. A total of 277 articles were identified through the database. Full-text thorough reading of 5 articles were selected and were assessed for eligibility. Further, these five articles were included in the study. At 1-year Ketac Nano and resin-modified glass ionomer cement restorations were better retained in noncarious cervical lesions, while superior color match and surface finish were observed with Giomer restorations. At 6 years, the HEMA-containing Self Etch adhesive Giomer restorations showed a rather high failure frequency.
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Nonsurgical management of persistent periapical lesions in the anterior region - A systematic review p. 8
Sayali Anil Maral, Anamika Chetan Borkar, Anita Babasaheb Tandale, Nikhil Babaji Nighot, Sanchit Vilas Mujumdar, Shruti Sudhakar Khade
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_11_20  
The basic objective of endodontic therapy is to prevent or arrest the pulpal or periradicular infection. Widely used intracanal medicament calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) introduced by Hermann in 1920 has numerous biological properties such as antimicrobial activity, tissue dissolving ability, inhibition of resorption, and bone formation associated with periradicular healing nonsurgically with less adverse reactions. A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE PubMed, EBSCOhost, Scopus, Google Scholar, and manual search library resources from January 1, 2008, to July 31, 2019, in order to identify relevant studies. All cross-reference lists of the selected studies were also screened. The inclusion criteria were articles in English or those having detailed summary in English, published between January 2008 and July 2019. Case reports and case series providing information about Calcium Hydroxide as an effective intracanal medicament in persistent periapical infections. Review, abstracts, letters to editors, and editorials were excluded. Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers. A total of 73 case report articles were identified through the database searching. A total of 20 articles were qualified and were selected. Most of the articles concluded that Ca (OH)2 in any form of vehicle promoted periapical healing with less adverse effects in persistent periapical infections.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH BASIC AND CLINICAL Top

Asymptomatic hepatitis B virus-positive patients visiting dental outpatient department in North India: A multicentric study p. 18
Richik Tripathi, Nidhi Singh, Prajesh Dubey, Himanshu Thakural, Dipti Samal, Abhishek Laha
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_25_19  
Background: In India, it is estimated that nearly 3%–4% of the population is affected by hepatitis-B virus (HBV). During the initial stage of the disease, the patient is asymptomatic, and there is a possibility for cross infection to dental surgeons and to other patients. The purpose of this study was to find the incidence of such HBV-infected asymptomatic patients visiting dental clinics of North India. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the outpatient department at five different centers of North India. Three centers in Uttar Pradesh, one centre in Bihar, and one centre in Himachal Pradesh. All the patients visiting dental OPD were advised hepatitis-B surface antigen (HbsAg) screening test day before dental procedure, and the procedure was planned on the next day or on the second day after reports were submitted. Those patients who were found positive for HbsAg were further tested for HBV DNA using polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Five thousand patients were screened, of 5000 patients, 4840 patients submitted complete blood test reports. One thousand six hundred and ninety patients were female and 3150 patients were male. The male-to-female ratio was 1:2.5. Fifty patients were found to be hepatitis B positive. Thirty patients of hepatitis B were in early infective stage. It was found that forty patients were positive for HBV DNA, whereas ten patients were negative. Conclusion: Incidence of asymptomatic hepatitis-B positive patients visiting oral surgery outpatient department in North India is 1%. We recommend routine HbsAg testing and proper sterilization of dental instruments in all dental surgical procedures.
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Antimicrobial efficacy of synthetic and natural-derived novel endodontic irrigating solution – An In vitro study p. 21
Thangi Sowjanya, Sudhakar Naidu, Mahendra Varma Nadimpalli, Gowtam Dev Dondapati, T B V G Raju, Parvathaneni Krishna Prasad
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_44_19  
Aim and Objective: This in vitro study was designed to comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA – 0.5% and 1%), phytic acid (IP6 – 0.5% and 1%), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl – 3% and 5.25%) as irrigating agents against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Agar plates were prepared using Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar. E. faecalis injected in nutrient broth at 37°C. Well diffusion methods were used to derive results. Plates were inoculated for 36 h at 37°C, and microbial zones of inhibition were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of analysis of variance. Results: PAA (1%) and IP6 (1%) showed larger zones of microbial inhibition. PAA (0.5%) was statistically significant (P < 0.05) when compared to NaOCl (3% and 5.25%). Conclusion: PAA (1%) was used as an irrigating agent in endodontic failure cases.
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Evaluation of gutta-percha removal from the dentinal tubules using different instrumentation techniques with or without solvent: An In vitro study p. 27
Mukesh Kumar Hasija, Babita Meena, Deepti Wadhwa, Kulvinder Kaur Wadhwani, Virender Yadav
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_46_19  
Aim: The cleanliness of dentinal tubules was compared after using different techniques for the removal of root filling material during root canal retreatment with and without solvent. Materials and Methods: Root canals of 90 extracted teeth were prepared and filled in vitro using lateral compaction with gutta-percha and sealer. In the control group (n = 10), the canals were left unfilled. In four experimental groups (n = 20 each), the root fillings were removed after 2 weeks using Hedstrom file, one of two rotary nickel–titanium instruments (ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment files), or a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser with H-file. Each experimental group was further subdivided into two subgroups (n = 10) according to whether the solvent N,N-dimethylformamide was used or not. After final irrigation, the samples were split longitudinally and photographed. The dentinal tubules' cleanliness was evaluated at the microscopic level by a scanning electron microscope in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of each root half. Results: The number of open tubules was more prevalent in the control group, followed by the nonsolvent subgroups, than in the solvent subgroup (P < 0.05). Conclusions: All of the instruments left some filling materials inside the root canal both with and without solvent, but using solvent led to more remnants inside the dentinal tubules.
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Quantitative analysis of oncostatin M levels in chronic periodontitis patients p. 33
Farooque Khan, Surekha Rathod, Abhay Kolte, Madhur Gupta, Suresh Chari, Noopur Gonde
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_51_19  
Background: Oncostatin M (OSM) is the cytokine from the family of interleukin-6. Inflammation, tissue turnover, healing, and repair alter the levels of OSM. The present study was aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum OSM levels in clinically healthy, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and subsequently after nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were equally divided into four groups as healthy, chronic gingivitis, CP, and CP with NSPT were included in this study. After 6 weeks of initial periodontal therapy the clinical parameters were measured and OSM levels in GCF and serum were assessed by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The levels of OSM in GCF and serum increased significantly with severity of periodontal disease. There was a significant decrease in OSM levels in GCF and serum in CP with NSPT group. Conclusion: GCF and serum OSM levels can be considered as an appropriate biomarker to be correlated with the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the increased OSM levels suggest its role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and prevent systemic complications.
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Evaluation of the bond strength of posterior composites to the dentin, treated with four different desensitizing agents – An In vitro study p. 38
C H Laxmi Priya, Savitha B Naik, N Kiran Kumar, Seema Merwade, Biji Brigit, Pavithra Prabakaran
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_55_19  
Background: Postrestorative sensitivity is frequently associated with composite restorations. Dentin desensitizers are used commonly for the management of postrestorative sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of four desensitizing agents on the bond strength of composite restoration. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five human premolars are used for the study. The occlusal surface of each tooth is flattened using a diamond disk to expose the dentin. The specimens are then etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 s and divided into five groups (n = 13) Group I – VivaSens, Group II – MS Coat F, Group III – Gluma, Group IV – Systemp, and Group V – Control. Single-step adhesive (Single Bond Universal, 3M) will be applied on the specimens and restored with composite material (Filtek Z350XT, 3 M). Shear bond strength is tested using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistically multiple group comparison was done using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test for group-wise comparison analysis. Results: Systemp desensitizer showed improved bond strength values than others desensitizers and control group. Conclusions: Systemp desensitizer can be considered as a promising option for preventing postoperative sensitivity associated with resin composite restorations without altering its shear bond strength to dentin.
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A new flap design compared with other flap designs on postoperative pocket depth following surgical removal of mandibular third molar p. 42
Kamaraj Loganathan, Jayashree Mohan, Bindu Vaithilingam, Riddhi Chawla, Nimal Ram Gandhi, Senthil Kumar Ganapathy
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_57_19  
Introduction: Surgical removal of mandibular third molars is the most frequently performed minor oral surgical procedure. Aims: This study aims to evaluate its effect on periodontal status of second molars at 3 and 6 months' follow-up comparing extractions done by three different flap techniques. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized control clinical study. Subjects and Methods: Ninety medically healthy controls of both gender, aged between 18 and 50 years who underwent surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars were divided into Group A, Group B and Group C wherein Bayonet flap, modified envelope flap and envelope flap was raised, respectively. Pocket depth at distobuccal and distolingual aspect of adjacent second molar was measured and compared for each group at preoperative as well as 3 and 6 months' follow-up. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA, paired t-test, and Tukey post hoc test using SPSS software. Results: There was no statistically significant difference found between pocket depths distal to second molars following impacted third molar extraction between three different flap groups. However, a significant reduction of pocket depth was noted from 3 to 6 months' follow-up for all three flap groups. Conclusions: Flap designs used for impacted third molar extractions do not contribute toward the alteration of periodontal health of second molars.
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Influence of age and gender in the assessment of inter-radicular and cortical bone thickness of the anterior maxilla and mandible for the placement of orthodontic mini-implants by cone-beam computed tomography: A retrospective study p. 49
Pragati Bramhe, Ajay Bhoosreddy, Chetan Bhadage, Prutha Rathod, Prajakta Chaudhari, Dipika Utekar
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_62_19  
Aim: To evaluate the cortical bone thickness in the anterior maxilla and mandible for the placement of orthodontic mini-implant in different age and gender using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Objectives: To determine whether the studied anatomic measurements vary with age and gender of the patients and to determine the optimal sites for mini-implant placement by measuring inter-radicular and cortical bone thickness in the anterior maxilla and mandible. Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 120 (60 males and 60 females) patients were divided into three age groups (15–20, 21–30, and 31–40 years). Measurements were done for each inter-radicular space in the anterior maxilla and mandible at four different depths, i.e., at a distance from cementoenamel junction (CEJ) up to 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm apical to CEJ. The mesiodistal (MD), buccolingual (BL), Palartal cortical (PC), Lingual Cortical (LC) bone thickness was measured. Results: The mean measurement of MD, BL and buccal cortical (BC), and PC/LC cortical bone thickness on both sides of the maxilla at 9 mm is highest at distal to 13 and 23; in the mandible, it is highest between 42 and 43, 32 and 33. BL width at 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm is significantly highest in the maxilla in males. In mandible BL, width at 3 mm was significantly highest in males. PC thickness at 3mm (1.856±0.789) and BC (1.214 ±0.224 ), PC (2.226 ±2.114) thickness at 9mm bone level in maxilla was significantly highest at 31-40 years. Conclusion: There is an influence of age and gender on inter-radicular and cortical bone thickness of the anterior maxilla and mandible for the placement of orthodontic mini-implants.
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The use of biphasic calcium sulfate (Bond Apatite®) for surgical treatment of osseous defects resulting from radicular cysts – Clinical study of 6 months follow-up p. 55
Dudek Damian, Reichmann- Warmusz Edyta, Kurtzman M Gregori, Mahesh Lanka
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_16_20  
Surgical treatment of odontogenic cysts of the jaws accounts for a significant percentage of dental surgery procedures. Additionally, a wide range of procedures and augmentation materials are used in the reconstruction of these osseous defects. The authors present a study including histology of surgical treatment of odontogenic cysts using a Biphasic Calcium Sulfate composite bone graft cement (Bond Apatite®).
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CLINICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUES/CASE REPORT WITH DISCUSSIONS Top

Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the mandible – A rare case report p. 62
Vennila Parameswaran, Sidra Bano
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_50_19  
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare idiopathic disease that is characterized by the clonal proliferation of bone marrow-derived Langerhans cells. It usually occurs in children at an incidence of 2.6–5.4/10,00,000 children/year. The disease occurs with a slight male predilection. The peak age ranges from 1 to 4 years. The common oral findings include the gingival enlargement, oral ulcers, and loosening of teeth. The variable radiographic appearance mimicking odontogenic cyst, osteomyelitis, or a malignancy poses a diagnostic challenge. This rare case report emphasizes on the differential diagnosis of LCH.
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Management of discolored nonvital tooth by walking bleach technique: A conservative approach p. 67
Nidhi Singh, TP Chaturvedi, Harak Chand Baranwal, Chi Koy Wang
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_52_19  
Discoloration of teeth in the anterior region can cause considerable cosmetic impairment. One of the techniques which is commonly used for bleaching of endodontically treated teeth is “walking” bleach techniques, and it provides satisfactory results. Based on the clinical reports with nonvital tooth bleaching, it is a viable, esthetic treatment for the discolored tooth. Its conservative nature makes it an important part of an esthetic dentistry treatment. This case report presents two cases, in which nonvital bleaching was done by walking bleach technique. Regular follow-up after a period of 4 weeks showed a significant reduction in the discoloration of teeth.
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A systematic approach to rehabilitation for hemimaxillectomy patient p. 72
Rizwana Mallick, Shabina Sachdeva, Eram Perwez, Vishal Goyal, Vanshika Jain
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_56_19  
Any surgical intervention for the correction of maxillofacial disorders consequently leads to a compromised functionality, esthetics, and patient's general quality of life. Larger defects requiring partial or complete excision of the affected part need prosthetic rehabilitation to restore patient's standard of living. Among the team of involved doctors, a prosthodontist plays a major role in the presurgical treatment planning and postsurgical rehabilitation of such patients. This following case report illustrates the various clinical and laboratory procedures that goes in pre- and post-surgical planning and rehabilitation of patient undergone hemi-maxillectomy, with an obturator prosthesis.
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The concept of neutral zone and rehabilitation of severely resorbed alveolar ridges: A special case file p. 78
K Abhay Narayane, Puttaraj T Kattimani, Krishnaraj Ranganathan, Akash Mithran, Sarathchandra Govind Raj, V Amalorpavam, Abhishek Singh Nayyar
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_11_19  
Mandibular dentures often present greater difficulty in achieving retention, stability, and support than do maxillary dentures, primarily, due to a complex anatomy because of bone architecture and muscle attachments, and consequently, increased number of anatomic limitations. Long-term edentulism as well as prolonged use of ill-fitting dentures result in severe resorption of the alveolar ridges, further, worsening this situation. The present case report describes a similar case of a 90-year-old male patient who reported to the department of prosthodontics seeking replacement of his missing teeth. On examination, the lower denture was ill fitting with a severely resorbed mandibular alveolar ridge. Intraoral examination revealed an Atwood's Class III maxillary edentulous ridge with Class VI edentulous mandibular ridge. Special measures were adopted for the management of the patient through a modified impression technique along with physiologic registration of the neutral zone.
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