JICDRO is a UGC approved journal (Journal no. 63927)
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   2015| January-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 18, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH BASIC AND CLINICAL
Single nucleotide polymorphisms at interleukin (IL)-1β + 3954 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) TaqI in chronic periodontitis patients: A pilot study in North Indian population
Anika Daing, Sarvendra Vikram Singh, Charanjeet Singh Saimbi, Mohammad Akhlaq Khan, Srikanta Kumar Rath
January-June 2015, 7(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153490  
Background: Increasing evidences support the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to chronic periodontitis. The aim of the present pilot study was to explore the association of two potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): Interleukin (IL)-1β + 3954 (rs1143634, C > T) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) TaqI (rs731236, T > C) with chronic periodontitis in a North Indian population. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight chronic periodontitis subjects and 47 periodontally healthy controls were recruited. Individual samples of venous blood were obtained from each subject. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Logistic regression and chi square test were used for genetic association analysis and a P value less than 0.05 taken as statistical significance. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test and odds ratio (OR) was used. Results: Genotypes and alleles of SNP IL-1β + 3954 did not show a significant association (P > 0.05) with chronic periodontitis. Genotype CC and allele C of VDR TaqI were significantly associated with a higher risk for chronic periodontitis as compared to subjects with TT genotype (CC/TT OR = 4.615; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17 to 18.078 P = 0.028) and allele T (C/T OR = 2.423; 95% CI: 1.179 to 4.980). Conclusion: In North Indian population, genotype CC and allele C of VDR TaqI were associated with risk of chronic periodontitis. No significant correlation was found for IL-1β + 3954 polymorphism and chronic periodontitis.
  4 1,950 190
INVITED REVIEWS
Aggressive periodontitis: A review
Vaibhavi Joshipura, Umesh Yadalam, Bhavya Brahmavar
January-June 2015, 7(1):11-17
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153489  
The purpose of this review is to highlight the current etiological and therapeutic concepts of aggressive periodontitis which is rapidly progressing and aggressive in nature. It leads to destruction of periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. We need advanced diagnostic techniques to learn about current disease activity and rate of progression. We also require strategies to keep the disease under control with proper maintenance regime and prevent tooth loss, because it can result into complicated prosthetic rehabilitation in a very young patient. The evidence suggests that aggressive periodontitis is influenced by microbiological, genetic, and host factors. This paper reviews clinical, microbiological, immunological, and genetic aspects of pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as well as diagnostic criteria of the disease and appropriate nonsurgical and surgical treatment options.
  3 13,931 2,316
EDITORIAL
Mind: The new sensory convention
Sangeeta Dhir
January-June 2015, 7(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153468  
  2 1,279 80
REVIEW ARTICLES
Porphyromonas gingivalis : Its virulence and vaccine
Nymphea Pandit, Radha Changela, Deepika Bali, Priyanka Tikoo, Shalini Gugnani
January-June 2015, 7(1):51-58
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153496  
Background: The microbial florae in adult periodontitis lesions are comprised of anaerobic rods with Porphyromonas gingivalis as one of the major components (Slots 1976; Slots 1979; and Tanner et al., 1979). P. gingivalis is a black-pigmented gram-negative anaerobic rod and a secondary colonizer of dental plaque requiring antecedent organisms. The presence of this organism either alone or as a mixed infection with other bacteria and with the absence of beneficial species appears to be essential for disease activity. It is a predominant member of the subgingival microbiota in disease. It possesses and "excretes" numerous potentially toxic virulence factors. Aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of studies on P. gingivalis and its virulence factors with a special focus on its vaccine. Materials and Methods: An electronic and manual search based on agreed search phrases between the primary investigator and a secondary investigator was performed for the literature review till January 2014. The articles that were identified by this systematic review (total of 190) were analyzed in detail, which included the study of inference and conclusion. Conclusions: Within the limits of this systematic review, it can be concluded that P. gingivalis induce immune inflammatory response in periodontitis subjects. Therapeutic vaccines need to be developed and studied for their efficacy in controlling periodontitis.
  2 5,656 739
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BASIC AND CLINICAL
Is pulpotomy obsolete? A clinical study on the success rates of indirect pulp capping and pulpotomy in the treatment of deep dentinal caries in primary second molars
KB Vidya, Shruthi B Patil, Rajesh T Anegundi
January-June 2015, 7(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153491  
Background and Objectives: Traditionally, there are two treatment modalities for vital primary teeth with deep carious lesion, which include indirect pulp therapy (IPT) and pulpotomy. Enormous research and review in vital pulp therapy gave rise to a question, if primary tooth pulpotomy is obsolete, and should IPT replace pulpotomy? IPT has shown higher long-term success rates than any pulpotomy procedures other than mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Hence, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the success rates of IPT using calcium hydroxide and MTA pulpotomy clinically and radiographically. Materials and Methods: Eighty primary second molars were selected and randomly divided into two therapeutic groups of 40 each. Group 1 were treated with IPT using calcium hydroxide paste and Group 2 were treated with conventional pulpotomy using MTA paste followed by stainless steel crown. Follow-up evaluation was done at an interval of 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: The follow-up evaluation revealed 100% clinical success in teeth treated with MTA pulpotomy and one radiographic failure of internal resorption detected at 3 months. There was 100% clinical and radiographic success with teeth treated with IPT. Though there was one radiographic failure with MTA pulpotomy, it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Indications being the same for both the procedures why not opt for IPT which offers several advantages over pulpotomy like fewer potential side effects, non-invasive, decreased chair time, child cooperation, and cost-effectiveness.
  1 6,005 480
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Intraoral Hemangioma: An overview of the clinical entity
Khyati Trivedi, Amit Soni, Rufus Meshack, Rakhi Satynarayan Kulthya
January-June 2015, 7(1):79-81
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153506  
Hemangiomas are common tumors characterized microscopically by proliferation of blood vessels. The congenital hemangioma is often present at birth and may become more apparent throughout life. They are probably developmental rather than neoplastic in origin. Despite their benign origin and behavior, hemangiomas in the oral cavity are always of clinical importance to the dental profession and require appropriate clinical management. Surgery and other treatment modalities are not always satisfactory and have a higher morbidity, recurrence, and complication rate. This case report presents a case of hemangioma of mandibular left lower region in 47-year-old female and its treatment using sclerosing agent.
  1 2,741 153
CHAIRMANS MESSAGE
Grow Intellectual property: Grow India !
Vijay Deshmukh
January-June 2015, 7(1):6-6
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153477  
  - 868 43
CLINICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUES/CASE REPORT WITH DISCUSSIONS
Novel approach of retension of maxillary molars with grade III furcation involvement with the use of glass ionomer cement
Tejaswini Patil, Pramod Waghmare, Amita Mali, Priyanka Agrawal, Kaustubh P Patil
January-June 2015, 7(1):64-68
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153503  
Introduction: Treatment of advanced furcation invasion has always been questionable. The present case report used a GIC as an occlusive barrier in the treatment of maxillary Class III furcation defects. This procedure helps in saving a tooth which otherwise would have been deemed for extraction. Method: In this case report, glass ionomer cement is used as an occlusive barrier in the treatment of maxillary Class III furcation defects. One year follow-up of clinical and radiographic photo series results showed a reduction of gingival inflammation, tooth mobility and gain in attachment level with the use of glass ionomer. Conclusion: As GIC has many advantages over other restorative materials like low cost, antibacterial property, ease in use, biocompatibility with periodontal tissues, it is a good option in management of class III furcation cases.
  - 2,517 216
Treatment of infrabony defects with platelet-rich fibrin along with bone graft: Case report
Surekha Y Bhedasgaonkar, Janak Kapadia, Neha A Patil
January-June 2015, 7(1):69-74
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153504  
Although periodontitis is an infectious disease of periodontal tissues, changes that occur in the bone are crucial, because destruction of bone is responsible for tooth loss. Although horizontal bone loss is most common, vertical bone loss is more amenable to regenerative periodontal therapy. Recently, importance has been given to use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) for predictably obtaining periodontal regeneration. PRF is a concentrated suspension of growth factors found in platelets. These growth factors moderate the wound healing and promote tissue regeneration. This article includes case reports of two patients who showed infrabony defects that were treated with combining PRF with allograft. This case report tried to compare the clinical and radiographical outcome obtained by combination of PRF and allograft.
  - 2,793 369
Pyoenic granuloma with alveolar bone loss
Amitandra Kumar Tripathi, Vivek Kumar, Charanjeet Singh Saimbi, Jolly Sinha
January-June 2015, 7(1):75-78
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153505  
Pyogenic granuloma is an inflammatory hyperplasia of connective tissue which arises in response to various chronic low grade irritations. It is a tumor like growth of oral cavity and considers being non-neoplastic in nature. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females and rarely causes significantly alveolar bone loss. This paper present case of a pyogenic granuloma, the size of lesion was unusual large with severe alveolar bone loss in affected site and managed by surgical intervention.
  - 1,605 84
Peripheral ossifying fibroma with an underlying exophytic bony mass
YV Nagarjuna Reddy, Deepika Pawar Chandrashekara Rao, Usha Hegde, Haridas Abhishek Vivek
January-June 2015, 7(1):59-63
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153510  
The peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a benign reactive gingival overgrowth occurring mainly in the anterior maxilla in young adults, predominantly among females. The definitive diagnosis is established by histological examination. Surgery is the treatment of choice, though the recurrence rate can reach up to 20%. The purpose of this article is to present a case of POF in a 50-year-old female with an abnormal size and an exophytic bony mass associated with it.
  - 1,762 86
GUEST EDITORIAL
Dental research: The missing block in the dental institutions
Mahesh Verma
January-June 2015, 7(1):3-5
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153474  
  - 1,257 77
INVITED REVIEWS
Animal experimentations: Part I: General considerations
TK Pal
January-June 2015, 7(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153486  
All materials, in the form of drugs or devices, which are intended for human use are required to be tested first in suitable animals. Many biological understandings are established on various modes of cruelties on animals. This observational notes guide us to accept or modify or even reject materials for ultimate human use. The science of experiments on animals gives us the remedial solutions to many of our human sufferings. This unique and important discipline is in need of proper understanding for selection of suitable number of animals and its proper care in captivity, and further refinements of code of conducts and ethical issues.
  - 2,456 142
NEWS IN DENTISTRY
News in Dentistry
Akshay J Melath
January-June 2015, 7(1):85-85
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153508  
  - 847 49
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BASIC AND CLINICAL
An in vitro comparision of apical leakage in immediate versus delayed post space preparation using EndoREZ and RoekoSeal root canal sealers
Munniswamy Kala, Sourabh Jagannath Torvi
January-June 2015, 7(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153492  
Context: The newer resin and silicone-based sealers have a shorter setting time when compared to conventional zinc oxide-based sealers. This factor may influence the effect of the timing of post space preparation on the integrity of remaining apical root canal filling. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the apical dye leakage of samples obturated with EndoREZ and RoekoSeal root canal sealers with reference to the timing (immediate and delayed) of post space preparation. Settings and Design: An in vitro study using extracted human teeth as study samples and the method of apical dye penetration to determine the apical micro-leakage microscopically. Materials and Methods: Seventy single-rooted anterior extracted teeth were instrumented and divided into ix groups; fifteen teeth in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 and five teeth in groups 5 and 6. In groups 1 and 2, specimens were obturated with warm vertical compaction and EndoREZ sealer. In groups 3 and 4, specimens were obturated with warm vertical compaction and RoekoSeal sealer. Immediate post space was prepared in groups 1 and 3. The samples in groups 2 and 4, the post space was prepared after placing the teeth in saline at 37°C for 1 week. Groups 5 and 6 represented positive and negative controls, respectively. The samples were then placed in methylene blue for 72 hours. The samples were then sectioned longitudinally and the amount of linear apical dye migration was evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple pair-wise comparisions using Tukeys multiple post hoc procedures. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean apical dye micro-leakage values in between the EndoREZ and RoekoSeal groups, i. e., groups 1, 2 and groups 3, 4. Conclusions: EndoREZ root canal sealer groups exhibited a higher mean apical dye micro-leakage value as compared to the RoekoSeal root canal sealer groups. Immediate post space preparation resulted in a relatively lower mean apical dye micro-leakage as compared to delayed post space preparation, but the difference was not statistically significant.
  - 1,718 139
Efficiency of a semiconductor diode laser in disinfection of the root canal system in endodontics: An in vitro study
Mithra N Hegde, Raksha Bhat, Preethesh Shetty
January-June 2015, 7(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153493  
Context: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the eradication of microbes from the rootcanal system and prevention of reinfection. The root canal is shaped with hand and rotary instruments under constant irrigation to remove the inflamed and necrotic tissue, microbes/biofilms, and other debris from the root canal space. The main goal of instrumentation is to facilitate effective irrigation, disinfection, and filling. Throughout the history of endodontics, endeavors have continuously been made to develop more effective irrigant delivery and agitation systems for root canal irrigation. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different newer irrigation delivery techniques; namely Endovac, Stropko Irrigator, and laser disinfection with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods: Forty teeth after disinfection by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations were instrumented and inoculated with bacterial strains of Enterococcusfaecalis. The teeth were divided into four groups, in the experimental group, the irrigants were delivered with the Endovac, Stropko Irrigator, and laser irradiation and the control group which received no irrigation. The samples were incubated in Muller-Hilton media plates and incubated for 24 h. Statistical analysis used: The colony forming units were determined and statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: According to the results obtained, laser irradiation resulted in complete disinfection of the root canal system. The Endovac system resulted in significant disinfection as compared to the Stropko Irrigator system. Conclusion: Laser irradiation resulted in significantly higher antimicrobial effects compared with the Endovac and Stropko irrigation groups when in conjunction with sodium hypochlorite
  - 2,635 309
Knowledge, attitude, and practices of interdental aids among medical professionals in Davangere district, Karnataka
Kharidi Laxman Vandana, Neha Mahajan, B Savitha
January-June 2015, 7(1):39-43
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153494  
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate awareness regarding interdental aids in medical population. Materials and Methods: This study included 337 medical professionals living in Davangere district, Karnataka, India. A dental health questionnaire was distributed to all subjects consisting of 18questions. Results: Total 337 people with 187 females and 150 males who were of mean age 27.6±9.0 years participated in the study. The significant positive response (<0.05) in females as compared to males was observed for two items (4 and 7). Conclusions: The low positive response towards interdental aids should focus to conduct mass educative programs providing information regarding different interdental aids.
  - 2,331 203
REVIEW ARTICLES
Host-bacterial interplay in periodontal disease
Rudrakshi Chickanna, M. L. V. Prabhuji, M. S. V. Nagarjuna
January-June 2015, 7(1):44-50
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153495  
A literature search was performed using MEDLINE (PubMed) and other electronic basis from 1991 to 2014. Search included books and journals based on the systematic and critical reviews, in vitro and in vivo clinical studies on molecular basis of host microbial interactions. Clearly, an understanding of the host susceptibility factor in addition to microbial factors by elucidating the molecular basis offers opportunity for therapeutic manipulation of advancing periodontal destruction. One of the hallmarks of pathogenesis is the ability of pathogenic organisms to invade surrounding tissues and to evade the host defence. This paper focuses the general overview of molecular mechanisms involved in the microbiota and host response to bacterial inimical behavior in periodontics.
  - 2,810 497
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Computers and internet in dental education system of Kerala, South India: A multicentre study
Kanakath Harikumar, Sameera Gopinath, Arun Raghunath, Vivek Narayan, Santhosh Sukumar, Rosamma Joseph Vadakkekuttikal
January-June 2015, 7(1):82-84
DOI:10.4103/2231-0754.153507  
Computers and internet have exerted a tremendous effect on dental education programs all over the world. A multicenter study was done to assess trends in computer and internet usage among the dental students and faculty members across the South Indian state, Kerala. A total of 347 subjects participated in the study. All participants were highly competent with the use of computers and internet. 72.3% of the study subjects preferred hard copy textbooks to PDF format books. 81.3% of the study subjects thought that internet was a useful adjunct to dental education. 73.8% of the study subjects opined that computers and internet could never be a replacement to conventional classroom teaching. Efforts should be made to provide greater infrastructure with regard to computers and internet such as Wi-Fi, free, unlimited internet access to all students and faculty members.
  - 1,159 100
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