|Year : 2009 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 1-4
Clinical effect of Juglans regia on developing dental plaque
CS Saimbi1, Nisha Shubh2, KK Kapoor3, Shalini Kaushal1
1 Department of Periodontics, C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, India
2 Dental Surgeon, Dental Health Services, Arunachal Pradesh, India
3 Department of Periodontics, K. G. Medical College, Lucknow, India
|Date of Web Publication||23-Feb-2011|
C S Saimbi
Department of Periodontics, C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
2% and 3% concentration of petrol-ether and ether fractions in propylene glycol and 2% water soluble extract of the bark of Juglans regia were tried against developing plaque. All the preparations were applied twice a day on 20 subjects for 3 days. Results compared with three days old base line plaque score demonstrated maximum plaque inhibition (32.40% ) by 2% ether extract.
|How to cite this article:|
Saimbi C S, Shubh N, Kapoor K K, Kaushal S. Clinical effect of Juglans regia on developing dental plaque. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2009;1:1-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Saimbi C S, Shubh N, Kapoor K K, Kaushal S. Clinical effect of Juglans regia on developing dental plaque. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ [serial online] 2009 [cited 2020 Dec 1];1:1-4. Available from: https://www.jicdro.org/text.asp?2009/1/3/1/77004
| Introduction|| |
Plaque is the main etiological factor of periodontal disease. Several mechanical and chemical agents  have been explored for the control of plaque formation. Scientists off late have began to focus upon the potentials of phytochemicals that could have value in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Plant alkaloids like sanguinarine , showed detectable antiplaque activities. The antibacterial activity of magnolia cortex and related compounds isolated has been investigated against S.mutan with promising efficacy  . Leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and Acacia arabia also showed promising plaque inhibitory effect  . Bamboo leaf extract has been tried in periodontal therapy  which showed statistically significant results in gingivitis though no changes in plaque index were noticed. Another important medicinal plant is Juglans regia belonging to the family Juglandeceae. It is also locally known as Dandasa. It is extensively used by the north Indian population, especially ladies for cleaning their teeth and staining their lips and gingiva, but unfortunately no effort appears to have been made to evaluate its plaque inhibitory effect. It is therefore planned to explore the role of Juglans regia against the developing dental plaque.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Twenty subjects of 16 years to 30 years age group were enrolled for this clinical trial from the Department of periodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, C. S. M. Medical University, Lucknow, India. The subjects selected had clinically healthy gingiva or had mild gingivitis, pocket depth not exceeding 3mm and having no oral afflictions.
| Plant Materials|| |
In the present clinical trial 2% Juglans regia ether extract, 3% Juglans regia ether extract, 2% Juglans regia petroleum extract, 3% Juglans regia petroleum extract, 2% water soluble Juglans regia extract and propylene glycol as vehicle were tried.
| Preparation of Extracts|| |
The bark of Juglans regia was collected, shade dried and pulverized into fine form. The pulverized material was soxhleted with ethyl alcohol and extract was sequentially segregated into petroleum ether, and dried over with anhydrous sodium sulphate. The solution was then filtered and distilled off. The left over residue contained the petroleum ether soluble fractions from which solution of 2% and 3% concentration were prepared, using propylene glycol as vehicle.
The aqueous fraction was then treated with cold water three or four times, separating the aqueous and other layer and washed out ether layer solution was treated with anhydrous sodium sulphate. The extract was distilled to have the ether soluble fraction from which solution of 2% and 3% concentration were prepared, using propylene glycol as vehicle.
Remaining lower fraction was treated with ethyl acetate three or four times. It was washed with water and dried with calcium chloride. The dried extract was distilled to have ethyl acetate soluble fraction. Remaining water soluble extract was evaporated to get water soluble fractions.
| Clinical Trial|| |
Before starting the experimental trial, oral prophylaxis was done on the subjects and plaque was removed by thorough brushing. Subjects were instructed not to perform their routine brushing for three days and not to take any fibrous food. At the end of three days, plaque was disclosed by tetrazolium compound and methylene blue disclosing solution. The disclosed plaque was scored by Turesky-Gilmore Glickman of Quigley and Hein scoring system  . Plaque thus obtained at the end of three days provided a "Base-line plaque" of each subject. The subjects were given an interval of three days to perform their routine oral hygiene measures. On the seventh day, plaque score was again reduced to zero in each subject and the preparation of 2% Ether extract of Juglans regia was applied with the help of cotton pellets twice daily on the facial and lingual surfaces of all the teeth. The subjects were allowed to rinse with tap water after 5 minutes. The procedure was repeated for three days in succession at the end of which plaque score was again recorded. In a similar way, all the preparations of Juglans regia were tried.
| Statistical Analysis|| |
The plaque score per person was obtained by totaling all the plaque score and dividing by the number of surfaces examined. Mean scores were calculated for each group and significance of differences between two mean scores were determined by the "Mann Whitney U Test"  .
| Results|| |
On comparison of baseline plaque scores with experimental plaque scores, Juglans regia exhibited antiplaque activity in all the preparations tried. Ether extracts and aqueous extracts showed promising results as compared to petroleum extracts.
2% and 3% ether fraction of Juglans regia showed the antiplaque activity of 32.12% and 31.56% respectively. 2% aqueous solution of Juglans regia inhibited 30.32% plaque; 2% and 3% petroleum ether fraction showed 17.62% and 19.45% of plaque inhibitions respectively. All the findings were statistically highly significant. [Table 1].
|Table 1: Mean Baseline Plaque Score, Experimental Plaque and Percentage Plaque inhibition of different extracts of Juglans regia (J.R.)|
Click here to view
Propylene glycol used as solvent for the test preparations showed the antiplaque activity of 7.88%.
| Discussion|| |
The results show varying response to plaque by different extracts. The preparations of petroleum ether extracts, ether extracts and aqueous extracts were tried in concentration of 2% and 3% solution on plaque for continuously three days. The results with ether and aqueous preparations were promising but petroleum ether extracts results were comparatively less effective (17.62% and 19.45%). [Table 1] The juglone, a naphaquinone present in the cambium of Juglans regia is reported to stain the oral mucosa  . Interestingly, none of the fraction when tested clinically stained the oral mucosa. The possible reason for this peculiar behavior may be due to reduction of juglons to hydro-juglone. The aqueous extracts of Juglans regia possess bactericidal action due to presence of caffeic acid, crumicidine and qurecetin in the bark of Juglans regia which exhibit antibiotic effect  . Thus antiplaque activity of Juglans regia can be partly attributed to juglone, caffeic acid and crumicidin. The presence of enzymes peroxidase, lipase and amylase in Juglans regia may also be responsible for plaque inhibition, which too may play a role in inhibition of plaque accumulations.
The findings of this study suggested that Juglans regia to be clinically used as an anti-plaque agent and could be considered a potent adjunct to oral hygiene regime. However, further exploration of Juglans regia is needed in various other concentrations to have optimum results and qualitative assessment of bacterial plaque will be more meaningful.
| References|| |
|1.||Newburn, E.: Bactericidal action of bicarbonate mouthrinses. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry. Suppl. 6, 110-116, 1985 |
|2.||Lindhe, J.: Clinical assessment of antiplaque agents. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry. Suppl.5, 578-581, 1984 |
|3.||Etemadzadeb, H. and Aniamo, J. Lacking anti-plaque efficacy of 2-sanguinarine mouth rinses. J. Clinical Periodontal. 14, 176-180, 1987 |
|4.||Namaba, T., Tsunezuka, M. and Hattori, M. Ethnobotany and medicinal plants, Part-I., J. Med. Plant. Res. 44, 199-206, 1982 |
|5.||Saimbi, CS and Sing, C. Some new anti-plaque agents. Bull. Indian Soc. Periodont. 10, 15-18, 1986 |
|6.||Quigley, G. and Hein J. Comparative Cleansing efficacy of manual and power brushing. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 65, 26-29, 1962. |
|7.||Siegel, S. McGraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd. Tokya, Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral Sciences. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 75-83, 127-136, 1956 |