JICDRO is a UGC approved journal (Journal no. 63927)

   Table of Contents      
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-26

Antimicrobial efficacy of synthetic and natural-derived novel endodontic irrigating solution – An In vitro study


Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sree Sai Dental College and Research Institute, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission28-Sep-2019
Date of Acceptance21-Dec-2019
Date of Web Publication29-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Thangi Sowjanya
Sree Sai Dental College and Research Institute, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_44_19

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Aim and Objective: This in vitro study was designed to comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA – 0.5% and 1%), phytic acid (IP6 – 0.5% and 1%), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl – 3% and 5.25%) as irrigating agents against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Agar plates were prepared using Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar. E. faecalis injected in nutrient broth at 37°C. Well diffusion methods were used to derive results. Plates were inoculated for 36 h at 37°C, and microbial zones of inhibition were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of analysis of variance. Results: PAA (1%) and IP6 (1%) showed larger zones of microbial inhibition. PAA (0.5%) was statistically significant (P < 0.05) when compared to NaOCl (3% and 5.25%). Conclusion: PAA (1%) was used as an irrigating agent in endodontic failure cases.

Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis, peracetic acid, phytic acid, sodium hypochlorite


How to cite this article:
Sowjanya T, Naidu S, Nadimpalli MV, Dondapati GD, Raju T B, Prasad PK. Antimicrobial efficacy of synthetic and natural-derived novel endodontic irrigating solution – An In vitro study. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2020;12:21-6

How to cite this URL:
Sowjanya T, Naidu S, Nadimpalli MV, Dondapati GD, Raju T B, Prasad PK. Antimicrobial efficacy of synthetic and natural-derived novel endodontic irrigating solution – An In vitro study. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 5];12:21-6. Available from: https://www.jicdro.org/text.asp?2020/12/1/21/291110




   Introduction Top


Initial endodontic disease is caused by oral microorganisms, which are usually taking an authority to invade a root canal enclosing necrotic tissue and organize an infectious process. Elimination of these microorganisms from the root canal system is the basis for successful endodontic treatment.[1] Anaerobic bacteria mainly caused periapical diseases. Mostly black-pigmented Gram-negative species will cause signs and symptoms of these diseases.[2] However, after conventional root canal preparation, microorganisms may remain either within the dentinal tubules or bound within the apical dentin plug.[3]

One of the leading causes of root canal therapy failure is the persistence of microorganisms and their reinfection. Engstrom et al. recovered numerous species of bacteria from failed root canal cases. Enterococcus faecalis was one of the most prevalent bacteria,[4] and its frequency in search infections ranges from 24% to 77%.[5] It can survive very harsh environments, including extreme alkaline pH (9.6) at a temperature of 60°C for 30 min.[6] It had certain mordancy factors such as lytic enzymes, cytolysin, pheromones, and lipoteichoic acid[7] and burke the action of lymphocytes, potentially contributing to endodontic failure.[8] It can survive in well-instrumented and obturated root canal alone and can endure prolonged periods of starvation[5] and passively maintain pH homeostasis because of its functioning proton pump and synthesis a variety of stress protein when exposed to adverse environmental conditions.[9]

Because of the extremely complex root, canal anatomy cleaning of the root canal system using mechanical instrumentation alone is ineffective.[10] Around 40%–50% of root canal walls are remaining untouched by mechanical preparation.[11] Hence, cleaning and shaping, along with copious irrigation, further reduced microbes. The various commonly used irrigants are sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, chlorhexidine (CHX), gluconate, hydrogen peroxide, povidone-iodine, etc.[12]

NaOCl has a great dentin-disinfecting potential and tissue-dissolving capacity,[13] since it has finite effect on dissolution of smear layer, dimeneralizing agents as adjuvants were used in endodontic therapy.[14] Exposed dentinal tubules may allow the hypochlorite solution to penetrate better into dentin, resulting in cleaner root canal.[15] The main drawback of this causes severe pain, inflammation, swelling, cellular destruction, and necrosis of the vital tissues when extrusion occurs through apices of the teeth.[16]

Hence, a constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side effects caused by synthetic drugs, there is a need for alternative disinfecting measures to overcome the disadvantages. In this era of dentistry, we are looking towards herbal alternatives like phytic acid(ip6, inositol hexakisphosphate).

Phytic acid (IP6, inositol hexakisphosphate) is a naturally occurring compound first identified in 1855 that was proposed to have superior properties as newer chelating agents. It is available in whole grains, cereals, legumes and rice bran seeds. It is economical, and it contains phytic as the primary storage form of phosphorus that contributes to a wide variety of cellular functions found in most mammalian cells at a concentration ranges from 10 to 100 mmol/l.[17]

IP6 has multiple negative charges, making it an effective chelator of multivalent cations such as calcium (Ca+2), magnesium, and iron. IP6 is a highly negatively charged molecule that has an affinity to Ca+2. The pH of 1% IP6 solution was around 1.2, and this acidity contributed to better Ca+2 extraction. Thus, both the acidity and chelate function of IP6 made it an effective smear layer removal agent. It did not show a negative effect on the viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 cells.[18] It is preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species responsible for cell injury and carcinogenesis. Based on these proposed properties, IP6 has the potential to replace EDTA as a root canal chelating agent.[18]

The search for alternative irrigating solutions has focused on substances with antibacterial effect and capacity to clean the dentin surface. A promising material to be used as a chelating agent with antimicrobial action is peracetic acid (PAA).[19] Despite being widely used in endodontics in Eastern Europe in the year 1980, PAA has only recently suggested as an auxiliary chemical solution with the potential to replace EDTA in the final irrigation procedure after biomechanical preparation.[20]

PAA action is both time and concentration dependent, so that longer exposure times and higher concentrations could show antimicrobial activity similar to that of NaOCl according to Ordinola-Zapata et al.[21] A study done by De-Deus et al has shown the biofilm dissolving ability of PAA.[22] PAA is a recognized disinfectant that exhibits antibacterial, sporicidal, antifungal, and antiviral properties used in hospitals and food industries.[23] It has a broad spectrum of action in the presence of heterogeneous organic matter, even at low concentrations of 0.5%.[24] The mechanism of the action of PAA decomposed into safe by-products such as acetic acid, and oxygen highlights the possibility as a final irrigant to dissolve the smear layer and antisepsis of the root canal system.[19]

As of now, there is no sufficient scientific research literature available that can evaluate the antimicrobial properties of IP6 and PAA, as root canal irrigants. The main purpose of thisin vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of PAA (0.5% and 1%), IP6 (0.5% and 1%), and NaOCl (3% and 5.25%) as root canal irrigants against E. faecalis.


   Materials and Methods Top


Standard strains of E. faecalis (NCIM-5443) spores extracted from the National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms, Pune. The bacterium was grown and maintained on nutrient broth (High Media Laboratories, Mumbai). Initially, as per the manufacturer's instructions, the viability of spores was checked by reviving a pellet from the available vial of E. faecalis into 5 ml of nutrient broth at 37°C for 18 h followed by observing changes in turbidity to check bacterial growth.

Nineteen agar plates prepared using Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar mixed according to the manufacturer's directions and enough agar was poured to cover the surface of a 125-mm sterile Petri dish. The MH agar dishes were stored at room temperature for solidification. E. faecalis was inoculated into these MH agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h.

Root canal irrigants used in this study contain 0.5% and 1% of PAA, 0.5% and 1% of IP6, and 3% and 5.25% of NaOCl (Leo Chemicals, Bangalore, Karnataka, India) obtained.

Wells were prepared using borates of sizes of 6-mm diameter and 3-mm depth which were punched with the help of these borates in agar plates. Moreover, the respective tested solutions introduced with the help of sterile micropipette tips contain 10 μl of the respective tested solution introduced into these wells tested. Moreover, then, the plates were incubated at 37°C for 36 h.

All manipulations of the specimens were performed under a laminar flow chamber to avoid contamination, and then, the growth was observed.


   Results Top


The mean values of Zones of Inhibition were calculated at in millimeter at 36hrs [Table 1] Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA for intragroup comparison and post hoc test was used for intergroup comparison. Statistical analysis was made using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. It observed that PAA (1%) showed statistically (P < 0.05) more zone of microbial inhibition than PAA (0.5%), IP6 (0.5% and 1%), and NaOCl (3% and 5.25%). IP (1%) and PAA (0.5%) showed significantly larger zones of microbial inhibitions than NaOCl (3% and 5.25%) and IP6 (0.5%). The zone of inhibition between PAA (1%) and IP6 (1%) was not significant (P > 0.05), and the control group showed no microbial inhibition [Figure 1]and [Figure 2].
Table 1: Antimicrobial effect of irrigating agents on Enterococcus faecalis

Click here to view
Figure 1: mean zone of inhibition

Click here to view
Figure 2: diameter of Zones of Inhibition in millimeters of various irrigating solutions against E.faecalis [a-g]

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Failure of endodontic treatment can be attributed to the fact that mechanical instrumentation alone does not eliminate the bacterial load. The leading cause of endodontic failure may occur from residual bacteria within the root canal system and dentinal tubules resulting in recolonization after obturation.[25] Ideally, root canal irrigants should have a broad antimicrobial spectrum, especially against anaerobic and facultative microorganisms. When irritant comes in contact with vital tissues, it should be nontoxic, noncaustic to periodontal tissues, and had less potential for an anaphylactic reaction. It should dissolve necrotic pulp tissue remnants, inactivate endotoxins, prevent formation, or elimination of smear layer during instrumentation.[26],[27],[28]

Due to anatomical complexities or may be due to varying vulnerabilities of involved species, complete elimination of microorganisms from the root canal is not possible despite antimicrobial properties of chemomechanical preparation and intracanal medicaments.[29],[30] The most commonly isolated species from failed endodontic treatment is E. faecalis.[31] The portal of entry into the root canal during treatment, between appointments, is after root canal completion.[7]E. faecalis could invade dentinal tubules and adhere to collagen in the presence of human serum.[32]

In thisin vitro study, antimicrobial activity of various root canal irrigating agents was compared to eliminate the endodontic pathogen responsible for root canal failure. In the current study, NaOCl at 3% and 5.25% is a powerful antimicrobial agent against E. faecalis. It is showing fewer inhibition zones, which ranged from 28 mm to 31 mm.

The bacterial ability is due to the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) wherein contact with organic debris. HOCl exerts its effects by oxidizing sulfhydryl groups within the bacterial enzyme system, which disrupts the metabolism of microbes resulting in the killing of bacterial cells.[33],[34] NaOCl recommended for endodontic treatment; it has a more significant antibacterial effect at a higher concentration than the diluted level.[35] 5.25% NaOCl was efficacious in eliminating the bacterial strains commonly found in infected root canal but at this concentration has increased toxicity and can irritate the periapical tissues[36],[37] and thus affect the prognosis of posttreatment recovery or even result in chronic postoperative pain. Hence, to prevent NaOCl accidents, it should be used with caution in endodontic therapy.

In the present study, newer plant-based organic material is IP6, which is a natural extract from rice bran. Nassar et al. did a study state that the bactericidal effect of IP6 was much more significant than other organic acids. The antimicrobial effect was mainly explained by weak acid theory. Due to its unique structure of IP6 and wide acidity range, the antimicrobial activity is likely to be different.[38] A study done by Puvvada et al. states that 1% IP6 shows a more substantial zone of inhibition when compared to irritants such as NaOCl, CHX, and EDTA[17] against E. faecalis.

In the present study evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis, it was showing a more substantial zone of inhibition IP6 (0.5% and 1%), which ranged from 31 mm to 39 mm. A study done by Nassar et al. states that the pH of a 1% IP6 solution was around 1.2, and this acidity contributed to better Ca+2 extraction. A study done by Nassar et al concluded that IP6 was able to remove the smear layer from flat coronal dentin surfaces and instrumented root canals and did not show negative effect on the viability and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells.[18] It is binding of calcium with IP6 is pH dependent, which showed superior antimicrobial ability when compared to conventional root canal irrigants such as NaOCl, CHX, and EDTA.

In the present study, among irrigants, a 1% PAA shows a broad range of the antimicrobial spectrum, which showed the highest zone of microbial inhibition ranging from 48 mm to 45 mm. PAA is an equilibrium mixture between acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution and has a strong oxidation potential,[39],[40],[41] and formed by-products have little or no toxicity.[42]

PAA is stable at pH equal to or less than its PKA of 8.2.[43] The mechanism behind the antimicrobial action of PAA possibly attributed to its effect on the lipoproteins in the cell membrane, which results in disruption of the lipoprotein cytoplasmic membrane or cell walls due to oxidative stress and subsequently denaturation of intracellular enzymes and other essential macromolecules.[44] A 0.5% PAA showed a higher antimicrobial efficacy compared to 17% EDTA in ex vivoE. faecalis model, a study done by Hartmann et al.[45] In another survey by Shirley de Souza Pinto et al., a 2% PAA ultimately killed E. faecalis after 15 s of exposure.[46] These results clearly show that PAA (1%) is the most effective root canal irrigant.

In a study conducted by Dornelles-Morgental et al., a 1% PAA solution was reported as having antimicrobial action against E. faecalis similar to that of 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX. Another property that potentially allows PAA to be recommended as an endodontic irrigating solution is its ability to dissolve smear layers. In a recently conducted study, a 1% PAA was significantly more effective in removing calcium hydroxide from root canals compared with 2.5% NaOCl or 17% EDTA + 2.5% NaOCl.

Because the use of PAA as a substitute for EDTA may be clinically advantageous because of the possibility of optimizing root canal disinfection, further studies are essential to confirm the antimicrobial efficacy of PAA that may use as an alternative to conventional root canal irrigants.


   Conclusion Top


The present study confirms that PAA (1%) showed promising results in the elimination of E. faecalis one of the collective organisms responsible for root canal failure, suggesting that it is to be used as an endodontic irrigating solution and as an excellent alternative to all conventional root canal irrigants and shows the least resistance developed by the species. A 1% PAA showed more zone of inhibition, indicating that its antimicrobial efficacy is more when compared to other irritants. However, further research is needed to evaluate its biocompatibility and its action in dissolving organic tissues.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Iqbal A. Antimicrobial irrigants in the endodontic therapy. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2012;6:186-92.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gomes BP, Drucker DB, Lilley JD. Associations of specific bacteria with some endodontic signs and symptoms. Int Endod J 1994;27:291-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Al-Nazhan S, Al-Sulaiman A, Al-Rasheed F, Alnajjar F, Al-Abdulwahab B, Al-Badah A. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls.In vitro SEM study. Restor Dent Endod 2014;39:258-64.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Engstrom B. The significance of enterococci in root canal treatment. Odontol Revy 1964;15:87-106.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Stuart CH, Schwartz SA, Beeson TJ, Owatz CB. Enterococcus faecalis: Its role in root canal treatment failure and current concepts in retreatment. J Endod 2006;32:93-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Tendolkar PM, Baghdayan AS, Shankar N. Pathogenic enterococci: New developments in the 21st century. Cell Mol Life Sci 2003;60:2622-36.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Rôças IN, Siqueira JF Jr., Santos KR. Association of Enterococcus faecalis with different forms of periradicular diseases. J Endod 2004;30:315-20.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Lee W, Lim S, Son HH, Bae KS. Sonicated extract of Enterococcus faecalis induces irreversible cell cycle arrest in phytohemagglutinin-activated human lymphocytes. J Endod 2004;30:209-12.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Hartke A, Giard JC, Laplace JM, Auffray Y. Survival of Enterococcus faecalis in an oligotrophic microcosm: Changes in morphology, development of general stress resistance, and analysis of protein synthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol 1998;64:4238-45.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Metzger Z, Solomonov M, Kfir A. The role of mechanical instrumentation in the cleaning of root canals. Endod Top 2013;29:87-109.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Peters OA, Laib A, Göhring TN, Barbakow F. Changes in root canal geometry after preparation assessed by high-resolution computed tomography. J Endod 2001;27:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Bryce G, O'Donnell D, Ready D, Ng YL, Pratten J, Gulabivala K. Contemporary root canal irrigants are able to disrupt and eradicate single- and dual-species biofilms. J Endod 2009;35:1243-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Zehnder M, Kosicki D, Luder H, Sener B, Waltimo T. Tissue-dissolving capacity and antibacterial effect of buffered and unbuffered hypochlorite solutions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002;94:756-62.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Nygaard-Ostby B. Chelation in root canal therapy. Odontol Tidskr 1957;65:3-11.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Goldman M, Goldman LB, Cavaleri R, Bogis J, Lin PS. The efficacy of several endodontic irrigating solutions: A scanning electron microscopic study: Part 2. J Endod 1982;8:487-92.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Al-Sebaei MO, Halabi OA, El-Hakim IE. Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: A case report. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2015;7:41-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Puvvada S, Latha P, Jayalakshmi KB, Arul Selvan K. Comparative assessment of chelating and antimicrobial efficacy of phytic acid alone and in combination with other irrigants. Int J Appl Dent Sci 2017;3:19-22.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Nassar M, Hiraishi N, Tamura Y, Otsuki M, Aoki K, Tagami J. Phytic acid: An alternative root canal chelating agent. J Endod 2015;41:242-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Lottanti S, Gautschi H, Sener B, Zehnder M. Effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic, etidronic and peracetic acid irrigation on human root dentine and the smear layer. Int Endod J 2009;42:335-43.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Fernandes SL, Tartari T, Bronzato JD, Bramante CM, Vivan RR, Andrade FB, et al. Use of peracetic acid as irrigating agent in Endodontics. Dent Press Endod 2015;5:56-60.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Arias-Moliz MT, Ordinola-Zapata R, Baca P, Ruiz-Linares M, García García E, Hungaro Duarte MA, et al. Antimicrobial activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid and Sodium hypochlorite/etidronate irrigant solutions against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Int Endod J 2015;48:1188-93.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
De-Deus G, Souza EM, Marins JR, Reis C, Paciornik S, Zehnder M. Smear layer dissolution by peracetic acid of low concentration. Int Endod J 2011;44:485-90.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Dornelles-Morgental R, Guerreiro-Tanomaru JM, de Faria-Júnior NB, Hungaro-Duarte MA, Kuga MC, Tanomaru-Filho M. Antibacterial efficacy of endodontic irrigating solutions and their combinations in root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;112:396-400.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Lensing HH, Oei HL. Investigations on the sporicidal and fungicidal activity of disinfectants. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg B 1985;181:487-95.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Berber VB, Gomes BP, Sena NT, Vianna ME, Ferraz CC, Zaia AA, et al. Efficacy of various concentration of sodium hypochlorite and instrumentation techniques in reducing E faecalis. Int End J 2006;39:10-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Vahdaty A, Pitt Ford TR, Wilson RF. Efficacy of chlorhexidine in disinfecting dentinal tubules in vitro. Endod Dent Traumatol 1993;9:243-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Tay FR, Hiraishi N, Schuster GS, Pashley DH, Loushine RJ, Ounsi HF, et al. Reduction in antimicrobial substantivity of MTAD after initial sodium hypochlorite irrigation. J Endod 2006;32:970-5.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Harrison JW. Irrigation of the root canal system. Dent Clin North Am 1984;28:797-808.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Gomes BP, Lilley JD, Drucker DB. Associations of endodontic symptoms and signs with particular combinations of specific bacteria. Int Endod J 1996;29:69-75.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Gomes BP, Pinheiro ET, Gadê-Neto CR, Sousa EL, Ferraz CC, Zaia AA, et al. Microbiological examination of infected dental root canals. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2004;19:71-6.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Pinheiro ET, Gomes BP, Ferraz CC, Teixeira FB, Zaia AA, Souza Filho FJ. Evaluation of root canal microorganisms isolated from teeth with endodontic failure and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2003;18:100-3.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Bystrom A, Claesson R, Sundqvist G. The antibacterial effect of camphorated paramonochlorophenol, camphorated phenol and calcium hydroxide in the treatment of infected root canals. Endod Dent Traumatol 1985;1:170-5.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Thomas DR, John RD. Comparative evaluation of endodontic irrigants against E. faecalis biofilms. J Endod 2006;32:527-31.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Baumgartner C, Cuenin RP. Efficacy of several concentration of sodium hypochlorite for root canal irrigation. J Endod 1992;18:605-12.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Nakajo K, Komori R, Ishikawa S, Ueno T, Suzuki Y, Iwami Y, et al. Resistance to acidic andalkaline environments in the endodonticpathogen E faecalis. OralMicrobiolImmunol 2006;21:283-8.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Siqueira JF Jr., Rôças IN, Favieri A, Lima KC. Chemomechanical reduction of the bacterial population in the root canal after instrumentation and irrigation with 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. J Endod 2000;26:331-4.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Vinay KG, Veerendra U, Arvind S. Comparison of antibacterial effects of various root canal irrigants on Enerococcous faecalis. World J Dent 2011;2:211-5.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Nassar RI, Nassar M. Antimicrobial effect of phytic acid on Enterococcus faecalis. Int Arabic J Antimicrob Agents 2017;6:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Dell'Erba A, Falsanisi D, Liberti L, Notarnicola M, Santoroa D. Disinfection by-products formation during wastewater disinfection with peracetic acid. Desalination 2007;215:177-86.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Carrasco G, Urrestarazu M. Green chemistry in protected horticulture: The use of peroxyacetic acid as a sustainable strategy. Int J Mol Sci 2010;11:1999-2009.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Hua MY, Chen HC, Tsai RY, Lin YC. A novel amperometric sensor for peracetic acid based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold electrode. Electrochim Acta 2011;56:4618-623.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Monarca S, Feretti D, Zerbini I, Zani C, Alberti A, Richardson SD, et al. Studies on mutagenicity and disinfection by-products in river drinking water disinfected with peracetic acid or sodium hypochlorite. Water Sci Tech W Sup 2002a; 2:199-204.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Yuan Z, Ni Y, Van Heiningen A. Kinetics of the peracetic acid decomposition: Part II: PH effect and alkaline hydrolysis. Can J Chem Eng 1997;75:42-7.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Leaper S. Influence of temperature on the synergistic sporicidal effect of peracetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide on Bacillus subtilis SA22 (NCA 72–52). Food Microbiol 1984;1:199-203.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Hartmann RC, Neuvald L, Barth V Jr, de Figueiredo JAP, de Oliveira SD, Scarparo RK, et al. Antimicrobial efficacy of 0.5% peracetic acid and EDTA with passive ultrasonic or manual agitation in an Enterococcus faecalis biofilm model. Aust Endod J 2019;45:57-63.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
de Souza Pinto S, Lins RX, Marceliano-Alves MF. Antimicrobial activity of peracetic acid for trans-operative disinfection of endodontic files. Int J Adv Eng Res Sci 2018;5:132-7.  Back to cited text no. 46
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed747    
    Printed37    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded29    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal