|CLINICAL CASE REPORT
|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 184-190
Long-term Clinical Evaluation of Coronally Advanced Flap with Chorion Membrane for the Treatment of Multiple Adjacent Gingival Recession Defects
Deepak Sharma1, Pravesh Kumar Jhingta1, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj2, Arun Singh Thakur2
1 Department of Periodontology, HP Government Dental College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, HP Government Dental College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||18-Sep-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||01-Nov-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||14-Dec-2020|
Dr. Deepak Sharma
Department of Periodontology, HP Government Dental College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Multiple adjacent recessions are challenging defects since they present a number of critical anatomic features as large surgical field, frequently shallow vestibules and prominent roots as well as a variation in the size of defects and residual keratinized tissue. Different surgical techniques have been proposed for the treatment of multiple adjacent recessions, mainly derived from the coronally advanced flap with or without connective tissue graft or from tunnel approaches. Harvesting of connective tissue graft is time consuming, it is limited in quantity and exposes patient to another surgical wound. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Coronally advanced flap with Chorion membrane for the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recession defects.
Keywords: Chorion membrane, coronally advanced flap, multiple gingival recessions
|How to cite this article:|
Sharma D, Jhingta PK, Bhardwaj VK, Thakur AS. Long-term Clinical Evaluation of Coronally Advanced Flap with Chorion Membrane for the Treatment of Multiple Adjacent Gingival Recession Defects. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2020;12:184-90
|How to cite this URL:|
Sharma D, Jhingta PK, Bhardwaj VK, Thakur AS. Long-term Clinical Evaluation of Coronally Advanced Flap with Chorion Membrane for the Treatment of Multiple Adjacent Gingival Recession Defects. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 19];12:184-90. Available from: https://www.jicdro.org/text.asp?2020/12/2/184/303404
| Introduction|| |
The purpose of the study was to assess the long term clinical effectiveness of Coronally advanced flap (CAF) with Chorion membrane for the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recession (GR) defects.
GR is defined as the exposure of the root surface due to the displacement of the gingival margin (GM) apical to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The prevalence of GR has been shown to increase with age and can occur in patients with good standards of oral hygiene as well as those with poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease. There are varied etiologic and predisposing factors related to GR, including trauma from tooth brushing, malposition of teeth, frenilia, and muscle attachments. Indications for root coverage (RC) include esthetic demand, root hypersensitivity, prevention or management of root caries and cervical abrasion, enhancement of restorative outcomes, and prevention of disease progression in areas where hygiene cannot be adequately maintained.,
During the past few years, the effectiveness of periodontal plastic surgery procedures in the treatment of localized or multiple recession-type defects (MRTDs) has been reported in several trials. Studies testing different techniques, such as CAF alone, subepithelial connective tissue graft (CTG) alone or in combination with rotated or advanced flaps, and guided tissue regeneration, have demonstrated that surgical treatment of exposed root surfaces improves clinical attachment levels (CALs) and reduces GR in most patients. Other recent studies have suggested that the choice of treatment for MRTD involving two or more adjacent teeth may be based on a variety of factors, such as anatomic structure, anticipated level of discomfort during healing, cost, and need for more than one surgical procedure to treat the entire recession site.,
Fetal membranes are comprised amniotic and chorion tissues. The chorion forms the outer limits of the sac that encloses the fetus and is composed of different types of collagen and cell adhesion bioactive factors. These are known to aid in the formation of granulation tissue by stimulating fibroblast growth and neovascularization., These properties suggest that a chorion membrane may have considerable potential for regeneration.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of CAF in combination with chorion fetal membrane in multiple adjacent Miller’s Class I and II GRs.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Five patients (three women and two men; age range: 36–53 years) with more than two Miller Class I or II facial GRs who were systemically healthy, nonsmokers, and nontobacco chewers were selected for the study approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institute [Figure 1]. A total of 21 sites were treated. All patients were healthy, cooperative, and understood the study protocol. Written consent from all patients was obtained after the nature of the procedure and risks had been fully explained. A complete case history, including a periodontal evaluation, was recorded. Patients’ recruitment and surgical procedures were undertaken from January to May 2016.
|Figure 1: multiple adjacent gingival recessions with respect to 24, 25, and 26|
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All the measurements were recorded by a blinded, trained, and calibrated examiner at the baseline and at 6 months, 12 months, and 36 months after the surgery and quantified with a caliper of 0.01-mm resolution. The baseline measurements were recorded 1 month after the initial therapy which included full-mouth scaling and root planing and oral hygiene instructions. The following clinical values were recorded at the baseline, then at 6, 12, and 36 month postoperatively: plaque index (Löe 1967), gingival index (GI) (Löe and Silness 1963), Probing Depth (PD), CAL, GR height (GRH), recession width (RW), and width and thickness of keratinized gingiva.
GRH was measured from the CEJ to the GM at the mid-buccal point of the teeth involved, using a periodontal probe, UNC 15 (Hu Friedy, USA). Keratinized gingival width was measured from the mucogingival junction to the GM. RW was measured at the CEJ. The thickness of the keratinized gingiva was measured 3 mm below the GM in the attached gingiva or the alveolar mucosa, using a number 15 endodontic reamer with a silicone disk stop. The mucosal surface was pierced at a 90° angle with slight pressure until hard tissue was reached. The silicone stop on the reamer was then slid until it was in close contact with the gingiva. After removal of the reamer, the distance between the tip of the reamer and the inner border of the silicone stop was measured to the nearest 0.1 mm with caipers.
A questionnaire was given to each patient at follow-up visit for suture removal to evaluate the postoperative pain, discomfort, and swelling. Another questionnaire was filled by the patients and recorded the results of the procedures relative to esthetics and root sensitivity at 6 month postoperative period. The questionnaires were administered by a research assistant, independent of the surgeon. In terms of the discomfort, pain, and swelling experienced in the postoperative period, patients selected one of the following choices: none, mild, moderate, or severe. In terms of esthetic outcome and improvement in dentin sensitivity, patients expressed their opinion by selecting one of the following choices: bad, sufficient, good, or excellent [Table 1].
CAF design used in the study is similar to that described by Langer and Langer involving the use of vertical releasing incisions. The flap design consisted of a horizontal incision extended to the most distal teeth with GRs on each side. The flap was raised with a split-full-split approach in the coronal–apical direction; the surgical papilla was elevated split thickness. Gingival tissue apical to the root exposures was raised full thickness and it terminated once 3–4 mm of the bone was denuded apical to the bone dehiscence. The most apical portion of the flap was elevated split thickness to facilitate coronal displacement of the flap. The remaining soft tissue of the anatomic interdental papillae was de-epithelialized [Figure 2].
During coronal advancement, flap mobilization was considered adequate when the marginal portion of the flap was able to passively reach a level coronal to the CEJ at every tooth in the surgical area and when the surgical papillae covered the corresponding anatomic papillae. Root planing of the exposed root surface was performed with Gracey curettes (Hu Friedy, USA). Chorion membranes were procured from Tissue bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India [Figure 3]. The membrane of the desired defect dimensions was trimmed and placed over the defect and sutured with interdental papilla with resorbable suture (Ethicon 5–0 Vicryl absorbable suture) [Figure 4]. CAF was sutured with a silk suture (Ethicon Mersilk Black Braided Suture). The periodontal surgical dressing was placed on the operated sites. [Figure 5],[Figure 6],[Figure 7] show postoperative views at 6, 12, and 36 months, respectively.
Postsurgical care and follow-up
Postoperative instructions were given to each patient, and analgesics were prescribed ibuprofen 400 mg as and when required by the patient to relieve postoperative pain. Tooth brushing was discontinued at the site of the operation for 4 weeks. Patients were instructed to keep the surgical site clean by a moist cotton pellet. During this period, plaque control was provided by rinsing with a 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate solution twice a day. Sutures were removed 2 weeks after the surgery. One month after the surgery, the patients were instructed to resume mechanical tooth cleaning of the treated area using a coronally directed roll technique that minimized apically directed trauma to the tissues of the treated teeth. Patients were enrolled in a periodontal maintenance program (professional plaque control) weekly for the first 4 weeks and then monthly until the end of the study period. All patients were evaluated at 6, 12, and 36 months for the recording of all study parameters. Photographs of the second patient are shown in [Figure 8],[Figure 9],[Figure 10],[Figure 11],[Figure 12],[Figure 13],[Figure 14],[Figure 15].
|Figure 8: second patient with multiple adjacent gingival recession with respect to 13, 14, 15, 16 and 44, 45, and 46|
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| Results|| |
The statistical analysis was performed using a statistical software program SPSS version 11.5 (IBM, USA). The results were averaged as mean ± standard deviation for all clinical parameters at the baseline and at 6, 12, and 36 months and are presented in [Table 2].
|Table 2: Clinical measurements at the baseline and 6, 12, and 36 month postsurgery|
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Statistically significant increase in the width of the keratinized gingiva (WKG) was observed at 6, 12, and 36 months as compared to the baseline. The thickness of the keratinized gingiva was significantly increased at 6 months of follow-up, however, nonsignificantly increased at 12 and 36 months as compared to the baseline. Clinical parameter of the probing depth (PD) was significantly decreased at 12-month and 36-month follow-up. Although the decrease in PD was seen at 6-month follow–up, it was not significant. Statistically significant reduction in recession height (RH), RW, and CAL was observed at 6, 12, and 36 months postoperatively. The mean recession (RH) coverage was 2.94 ± 0.32 at 6 months, 3.24 ± 0.37 at 12 months, and 3.44 ± 0.53 at 36 months. Complete recession coverage was observed in 71% (15/21) of the treated sites. Four patients showed thick tissue biotype posttreatment with chorion membrane as compared to 1 at the baseline as measured with the transparency of the periodontal probe.
Patient-reported outcome measures are also measured and presented in [Table 1]. Three out of five patients experience no pain and discomfort postsurgery. Two patients reported with mild pain and discomfort after the surgery. Four patients felt no postoperative swelling, whereas one experienced moderate swelling.
The esthetic outcome was as follows: all patients reported an excellent esthetic result. Four patients reported with an excellent improvement in dentin sensitivity. Regarding the postoperative period, all patients took analgesic pills on the 1st day only.
| Discussion|| |
The treatment of MRTDs is still a challenge for the clinician, as in these cases, the management of soft tissues becomes more difficult and the wound healing may be compromised by various factors such as the width of the avascular surface, limited blood supply, and differences in recession depth and position of the teeth.
Moreover, due to the longer surgical time and increase in patient morbidity, the treatment of MRTD is very demanding for both clinician and patient. Thus, when GRs occur in a continuum, affecting multiple adjacent teeth, minimizing the number of surgical appointments to optimize esthetics by treating the defects in a single sitting with minimum surgical intervention becomes a priority. A coronally displaced flap is a reliable and predictable treatment modality in these situations.
The CTG procedure is the “gold standard” as far as predictability and esthetic results are concerned in the treatment of GR. Although excellent esthetic results have been reported and RC has ranged from 69% to 97% in many studies, this technique requires a suitable donor site. Superior clinical outcomes of the CAF + CTG approach were, however, associated with longer chair time and greater morbidity than CAF alone. CTG harvesting is often associated with the possibility of postoperative complications such as bleeding, numbness, and sensitivity changes in the donor area. To overcome these inconveniences, attempts are made to develop new materials aiming to replace CTG to improve patient acceptance and minimize morbidity. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first clinical evaluation of cases on the use of chorion membrane in the treatment of multiple adjacent recession defects with 3-year follow-up.
The chorion membrane used has numerous advantages because of its structure and composition. Structurally, it consists of the following layers: (1) reticular, (2) basement membrane, and (3) trophoblasts. The extracellular matrix comprises collagen Types I, III, IV, V, and VI and cell-adhesion bioactive factors, such as fibronectin and laminin. Collagen is well tolerated and bioabsorbable, has hemostatic properties, and encourages the migration of adjacent autogenous connective tissue. Fibronectin is involved in many cellular processes, including tissue repair, blood clotting, cell migration, and adhesion. Laminin has a high affinity for binding epithelial cells, and in contrast to traditionally available membranes, this membrane allows for rapid epithelial cell growth rather than epithelial exclusion. In addition, the matrix of the chorion contains abundant growth factors, such as keratinocyte growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor- beta that promote periodontal regeneration and provide a natural environment for accelerated healing. Furthermore, the ability of this allograft to self-adhere eliminates the need for suturing, thus making it easier to use in posterior defects.
Pundir et al. did a split-mouth study and surgically treated 12 Miller’s Class I recession defects with a modified CAF along with Amniotic Membrane (Group A) and Chorion membrane (Group B). Clinical parameters measured at the baseline and at 3 and 6 months were WKG, PD, RH, CAL, and assessment of the gingival biotype. All these parameters showed marked improvement in both the groups. Nine out of 12 treated recession defects showed 100% RC. Esteves et al. reported a case series of ten healthy adult patients presenting with 21 Miller Class I GR defects (isolated or adjacent multiple) and were surgically treated with a modified CAF and chorion membrane for RC. The results showed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters of PD, CAL, WKG, and gingival biotype at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The mean percentage of RC at the end of 6 months was 89.92%–15.59%.
In the present study also, significant improvement in all clinical parameters was observed at 6, 12, and 36 months after surgical treatment with CAF and chorion membrane in multiple adjacent GR defects. Clinical parameter of the PD was significantly decreased at 12- and 36-month follow-ups. Statistically significant reduction in RH, RW, and CAL was observed at all follow-up intervals. There was increasing recession coverage at 12 and 36 months after treatment showing signs of creeping attachment with the maturation of flap margins. The thickness of the gingival biotype also improved in three patients. About 71% (15/21) of the treated sites showed complete RC.
| Conclusion|| |
The results of this case series indicate a significant improvement in RH, RW, and CAL along with a gain in CAL, which could be attributed to the regenerative potential of the membrane at 6, 12, and 36 months after treatment with CAF and chorion membrane. Increase in WKG was also noted as early as 6 months, along with a resultant thicker gingival biotype. The significant gain in WKG and the improvement in the biotype may also be attributed to the presence of mitogenic factors and anti-inflammatory protein of the membrane. No donor site means less pain and discomfort, morbidity, and surgical chair-time with the chorion membrane. Natural texture and color match to the surrounding native tissue are improved patient-reported outcomes. However, further studies with more statistical power and splitmouth design are necessary to measure clinical parameters to facilitate a more accurate long-term evaluation of gingival changes. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that the use of the chorion membrane may represent an alternative to CTG by reducing surgical time and patient morbidity.
The authors would like to thank Mr Astrid Lobo Gajiwala, Incharge of Tata Memorial Hospital Tissue bank, Mumbai, India, for providing the chorion membrane.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15]
[Table 1], [Table 2]